J9九游会AG

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电子元器件-继电器的工作原理

发表(biao)时间:2021-06-18 00:00:00

一(yi)、继电(dian)器的工作原理和特性(xing)

当输(shu)(shu)入(ru)量(如(ru)(ru)电压(ya)、电流(liu)、温(wen)度等(deng))达到规定值时,使(shi)被控制(zhi)的(de)输(shu)(shu)出电路(lu)导(dao)通或断开的(de)电器。可分为电气(qi)量(如(ru)(ru)电流(liu)、电压(ya)、频(pin)率、功(gong)率等(deng))继(ji)电器及非电量(如(ru)(ru)温(wen)度、压(ya)力、速度等(deng))继(ji)电器两大(da)类。具有动作(zuo)快、工(gong)作(zuo)稳(wen)定、使(shi)用(yong)寿(shou)命(ming)长(zhang)、体积小等(deng)优点。广泛应用(yong)于(yu)电力保护、自动化、运动、遥控、测(ce)量和通信等(deng)装置中。

继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)是一种电(dian)(dian)子控(kong)(kong)制器(qi)件(jian),它具有控(kong)(kong)制系统(又(you)称输(shu)入回路(lu)(lu))和被控(kong)(kong)制系统(又(you)称输(shu)出回路(lu)(lu)),通常应用(yong)于(yu)自动(dong)控(kong)(kong)制电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中,它实际上是用(yong)较(jiao)小(xiao)的电(dian)(dian)流去控(kong)(kong)制较(jiao)大(da)电(dian)(dian)流的一种“自动(dong)开关”。故在电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中起(qi)着自动(dong)调节、安(an)全保(bao)护(hu)、转换电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)等作用(yong)。

1、电磁(ci)继电器的工(gong)作原理和特(te)性

电(dian)(dian)(dian)磁式继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器一般由铁(tie)芯(xin)、线(xian)圈、衔铁(tie)、触(chu)点簧片等(deng)组成的(de)(de)。只要在线(xian)圈两端加(jia)上(shang)一定的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压,线(xian)圈中(zhong)就会流过(guo)一定的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流,从(cong)而(er)(er)产生(sheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)磁效(xiao)应,衔铁(tie)就会在电(dian)(dian)(dian)磁力吸(xi)引的(de)(de)作用(yong)下(xia)克服返回弹簧的(de)(de)拉力吸(xi)向铁(tie)芯(xin),从(cong)而(er)(er)带(dai)动衔铁(tie)的(de)(de)动触(chu)点与(yu)静触(chu)点(常(chang)开触(chu)点)吸(xi)合。

当线圈断(duan)电(dian)后,电(dian)磁的(de)(de)吸力(li)也随之消失,衔铁就会在(zai)弹簧的(de)(de)反作用力(li)返(fan)回原(yuan)来的(de)(de)位置,使动触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)与原(yuan)来的(de)(de)静触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(常闭触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian))吸合(he)。这(zhei)样吸合(he)、释(shi)放,从(cong)而(er)达到了(le)在(zai)电(dian)路(lu)中的(de)(de)导通、切(qie)断(duan)的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。对于(yu)继电(dian)器的(de)(de)“常开(kai)、常闭”触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian),可以这(zhei)样来区分:继电(dian)器线圈未(wei)通电(dian)时处(chu)于(yu)断(duan)开(kai)状态(tai)的(de)(de)静触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian),称为“常开(kai)触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)”;处(chu)于(yu)接通状态(tai)的(de)(de)静触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)称为“常闭触(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)”。

2、热敏干簧继电器(qi)的工作原理和(he)特性

热(re)敏(min)干簧继电器是一种利用热(re)敏(min)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)性(xing)材料检测和控制温(wen)度的(de)新型(xing)热(re)敏(min)开(kai)关。它由感(gan)温(wen)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)环(huan)、恒磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)环(huan)、干簧管、导热(re)安装片(pian)、塑料衬(chen)底及(ji)其他(ta)一些附(fu)件组(zu)成。热(re)敏(min)干簧继电器不用线圈励磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci),而(er)由恒磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)环(huan)产生的(de)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)力(li)驱(qu)动(dong)开(kai)关动(dong)作。恒磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)环(huan)能否(fou)向(xiang)干簧管提(ti)供磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)力(li)是由感(gan)温(wen)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)(ci)环(huan)的(de)温(wen)控特性(xing)决定的(de)。

3、固态继(ji)电器(qi)(SSR)的工(gong)作(zuo)原理和特性(xing)

固态继电器是一种(zhong)两个接线端为输入端,另两个接线端为输出(chu)端的(de)四端器件,中(zhong)间采用隔离器件实现输入输出(chu)的(de)电隔离。

固态继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)按负载电(dian)(dian)源类(lei)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)可分(fen)为交流型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)直流型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。按开(kai)关型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)式可分(fen)为常(chang)开(kai)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)常(chang)闭型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。按隔离(li)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)式可分(fen)为混合型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、变压(ya)器(qi)(qi)隔离(li)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)光(guang)电(dian)(dian)隔离(li)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),以(yi)光(guang)电(dian)(dian)隔离(li)型(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)为最多。

二、继电器(qi)主要产品(pin)技(ji)术参数

1、额定工作电压

是指继电(dian)器(qi)(qi)正常工作(zuo)时线圈(quan)所(suo)需要的电(dian)压(ya)。根据继电(dian)器(qi)(qi)的型号不同,可以是交流(liu)电(dian)压(ya),也(ye)可以是直(zhi)流(liu)电(dian)压(ya)。

2、直流电阻

是(shi)指(zhi)继电(dian)器中线圈的直流电(dian)阻,可以通过表测量。

3、吸合电流(liu)

是(shi)指继电(dian)器能够产(chan)生(sheng)吸合(he)动作(zuo)的(de)最小电(dian)流。在(zai)正常使用时,给定(ding)的(de)电(dian)流必(bi)须(xu)略大(da)于(yu)吸合(he)电(dian)流,这样继电(dian)器才能稳定(ding)地工作(zuo)。而对于(yu)线圈(quan)所加的(de)工作(zuo)电(dian)压(ya),一般不要超过额定(ding)工作(zuo)电(dian)压(ya)的(de)1.5倍,否则会产(chan)生(sheng)较(jiao)大(da)的(de)电(dian)流而把线圈(quan)烧毁。

4、释(shi)放(fang)电流

是指继电(dian)(dian)器产(chan)生释放(fang)动作的(de)更(geng)大电(dian)(dian)流(liu)。当(dang)继电(dian)(dian)器吸(xi)合状态的(de)电(dian)(dian)流(liu)减(jian)小到一定(ding)程度时(shi),继电(dian)(dian)器就会(hui)恢复到未(wei)通电(dian)(dian)的(de)释放(fang)状态。这时(shi)的(de)电(dian)(dian)流(liu)远(yuan)远(yuan)小于吸(xi)合电(dian)(dian)流(liu)。

5、触点切换电(dian)压和电(dian)流

是指继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)允许(xu)加载(zai)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)和电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流。它决定了继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)能控制电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)和电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流的(de)大小(xiao),使用(yong)时不能超(chao)过此值(zhi),否(fou)则很容易损坏继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)触点。



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